The base technology of Force Chem Technologies ForceGel XV Xanthan gum drilling fluid is Xanthan, a natural polymer, generated by the bacteria Xanthomonas Campestris and produced commercially by a fermentation process. It is composed of three monosaccharides - mannose, glucose, and glucuronic acid, arranged in a highly branched structure with an estimated molecular weight of 5 million. Xanthan's polar side chains provide sites for extensive hydrogen bonding with water and interactions between polymer chains that give rise to a helical structure in solution. ForceGel XV liquid biopolymer is a high-purity cross-linked Xanthan suspended in an ultra-clean mineral oil and biodegradable surfactants for ease of mixing. It is not subject to particle settling or fluid separation under normal storage or transport conditions. Starting with an environmentally friendly fluid and utilizing our unique suspension technology, we eliminate settling of the ForceGel XV while the product remains fully pourable. The long-term stability of the suspension provides for consistent, reliable product properties at your field locations any place in the world. This type of structure allows for a significant increase in solution viscosity especially at low shear rates. The physical properties of ForceGel XV have led to its use in a variety of drilling and completion applications. It is readily soluble in hot and cold water and brines over a wide pH range. In aqueous solutions, ForceGel XV is highly pseudoplastic and shows stability to a wide range of temperatures and pH changes. ForceGel XV has unique resistance to thermal degradation at temperatures up to and over 300°F, but at the same time is susceptible to degradation by enzymatic and oxidizing agents - these properties are ideal for drilling, completions, and fracking. ForceGel XV was cross-linked using a proprietary ionic process yielding an eco-safe, biodegradable, compound with enhanced pseudoplastic properties required to move large amounts of solids. It's unique 'scaffolding' molecular structure makes the product an excellent suspending agent to carry cuttings from drilling and completion operations. ForceGel XV's rheological properties are particularly well suited to oilfield applications in that it's pseudoplastic and produces high viscosity while at rest.
Table 1 ForceGel XV demonstrates outstanding performance which is readily seen in field conditions - tested at 3 gals/10 bbls and 5 gals/10 bbls in Seawater, Saturated NaCl (9.9 lbs/gal), and 11.0 lb/gal CaCl2 brine. Tested at 100° F - Fann 35, f1.0 measurement. Results show ForceGel XV is broad-spectrum and the one polymer that the drilling and completion system should not be without.
Table 2 ForceGel XV exhibits high calcium stability - tested at 3 gals/10 bbls in 11.0 lb/gal CaCl2 brine weighted to 12.0 lb./gal with 90 lbs/bbl of Calcium Carbonate. Aged at 150° F for 24 hours and cooled to 75° F for Fann 35, f1.0 measurement. These lab results indicate why ForceGel XV users in cement plug drill outs swear by its outstanding solids carrying capacity.
General Guidelines for Maximum Performance ForceGel XV can be used with or without bentonite, i.e. as a secondary or primary viscosifier/suspending agent. Unlike other polymers (cellulosic, polyacrylamides, starches), cross-linked ForceGel XV develops significant viscosity at low shear rates (LSRV) to provide suspension of weight materials in high-density fluids. ForceGel XV can be used in a wide range of makeup waters, ranging from fresh water to saturated sodium chloride, in formate brines, and near-saturated calcium chloride. The following are some general guidelines to achieve optimum fluid efficiency in the field: